Countdown 2020 – will the EU deliver its promise of healthy seas and shift to low-impact fishing?

A cage full of bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean. Overfishing has driven the magnificent species close to commercial extinction.

The European Union (EU) governs the largest maritime zone in the world, but European seas are also  amongst the most degraded waters on the planet. Decades of bad fisheries management have led to depleted fish stocks, a damaged marine environment and significant job losses in the fishing sector.

EU governments have agreed to:

  • achieve a good environmental status in its marine waters by 2020, and
  • end overfishing on a progressive basis, no later than 2020, with a view to recover fish populations.

EU fisheries policy

The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), which sets the main fishing rules in the EU, was reformed in 2014. This reform was initiated against the backdrop of severe stock depletion. In 2008, 30 percent of the stocks for which information existed were assessed to be outside safe biological levels, meaning they had a reduced capacity for reproduction, and 80 percent of stocks were being overfished.

Failing fisheries come at a high price. Compiling global data on fisheries in a one-off report, the World Bank calculated in 2009 that failing fisheries management is costing the world around $50 billion annually (€45 billion approx.).

The new CFP could now bring much needed changes in European fisheries, provided the rules are respected by EU countries and their fishing sectors. In summary, they are required to:

-        end overfishing and recover fish stock populations to healthy levels;

-        remove excessive fishing capacity within their fleet;

-        minimise destructive and wasteful fishing practices ;

-        promote sustainable and low-impact fishing by giving preferential access to fishing grounds to those fishermen that use fishing methods with a low impact on the marine environment and contribute most to the local economy;  and

-        ensure their fleets fish sustainably also when they operate outside EU waters.

Greenpeace is campaigning across Europe to push governments to end overfishing, eliminate excess fishing capacity in the EU fleet and shift towards sustainable and low-impact fishing.   

EU marine conservation laws

The EU’s marine strategy framework directive (MSFD) requires member states to reach a good environmental status for Europe’s seas by 2020 by implementing national marine strategies. Governments must act to protect and preserve the marine environment, including by preventing and reducing harmful inputs, establishing marine protected areas and by implementing an ecosystem-based approach to the management of human activities to ensure that the collective pressure of such activities is kept within levels compatible with the achievement of ‘good environmental status’. The MSFD builds on and is complemented by the habitats and birds directives, the water framework directive and other EU legislation aimed at reducing pollution.

Greenpeace is campaigning for the protection of marine reserves, including by challenging EU governments to eliminate impacts from fishing in such reserves.  A map of the areas that governments have committed to protect can be found here.

‘Plenty more fish in the sea’ no more

Many coastal fishermen struggle to make a living and more than 60 percent of the seafood on the European market has to be imported. A study by the New Economic Foundation shows that restoring just 43 European fish stocks in the Northern Seas to sustainable levels would generate more than €3 billion in additional landings, which could support the creation of more than 100,000 additional jobs in the sector.

According to the European Commission, the EU fleet is capable of catching between two and three times the amount of fish that would be acceptable to keep our fish stocks healthy.  As a consequence, fishing often exceeds sustainable levels. In the Mediterranean Sea the situation is very worrying: nine out of ten stocks are overfished.  In the Atlantic and the North Sea, the situation seems to be improving due to the recent strengthening of management measures, but the majority of stocks are still overfished.

Greenpeace recently singled out some of the largest and most destructive fishing vessels operating under European flags, ownership or management, which have received most of the subsidies for decades and still have access to the biggest share of fishing opportunities.  

The solution - sustainable and low impact fishing

The new CFP requires EU governments to set fishing limits at a sustainable level, eliminate the most destructive part of their fleet and give preferential access to fishing grounds to low-impact fishermen. To achieve this, they must allocate access to fishing grounds on the basis of environmental, social and economic criteria. This should favour sustainable small-scale fishing, create jobs in the fishing industry and restore fish stocks.

Greenpeace works with low-impact fishermen to bring pressure on governments to discontinue destructive fishing and promote a shift to low-impact fishing.

The latest updates


Juncker Commission 1st anniversary: a ‘lost year’ for environmental protection

Press release | November 2, 2015 at 9:42

Brussels – One year since the entry into office of the current European Commission headed by Jean-Claude Juncker, environmental groups have criticised the EU executive for a paralysis in policymaking on issues related to the environment.

TTIP negotiators contemplate systematic dismantling of environmental standards,...

Press release | October 23, 2015 at 11:22

Brussels – Negotiators at EU-US trade talks ending in Miami later on Friday have discussed a system to weaken environmental standards that stand in the way of corporate interests, said Greenpeace. The talks are taking place against a backdrop of...

Ailing Baltic cod caught in political vortex

Press release | October 22, 2015 at 10:00

Brussels - EU fisheries ministers meet today to agree 2016 quotas for stocks in the Baltic Sea. With Baltic cod stocks in a worrying state, there is no room for complacency: ministers must set sustainable fishing limits for all stocks, not least...

Taiwan faces EU sanction on fisheries

Press release | October 1, 2015 at 15:01

Taipei - Three weeks after Greenpeace Rainbow Warrior busted Taiwanese tuna longliner Shuen De Ching No.888 (順得慶888號) fishing illegally in the Pacific, the European Commission has yellow carded Taiwan for failing to fight illegal, unreported and...

Commission TTIP plan retains privileged corporate justice system

Press release | September 16, 2015 at 13:19

Brussels – The European Commission’s modified plan for an Investment Court System under an EU-US trade agreement (known as TTIP) continues to give foreign investors a privileged justice system to challenge EU standards on the environment, health...

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