印尼漏油悲劇,可否不再重演…… | 綠色和平 (香港網站)

印尼漏油悲劇,可否不再重演……

專題報導 - 2018-04-13
您以為家園可與煉油廠、輸油管相安無事,然後一覺醒來,油污、火舌、濃煙就在咫尺之外……3月31日,印尼婆羅洲對開一條海底油管破裂,釀成大規模漏油,全國進入緊急狀態。事故造成5人死亡,油污更波及60公里海岸線及129平方公里海域。綠色和平派員走訪當地,與您密切監察事態發展,避免悲劇重演。

A fire appear from the oil spill in Balikpapan bay, East Kalimantan. An oil spill off Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a bursed of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

凌晨3時30分,尚未到早禱時間,但馬加沙利村(Margasari Village)村長Ride漫長而奔波的一天自此展開──他接獲村民告知,油污正進逼這條位於印尼東加里曼丹省巴里巴班灣(Balikpapan Bay)的近岸村落。

Margasari subdistrict chief, Ride, stands near the fishermen's boat that is  docking on the water  contaminated by oil next to Pertamina's refinery installation in Margasari village, Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan. An oil spill off Balikpapan bay in  Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a burst of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

Ride的首要任務,是要讓村民冷靜下來,並警告眾人切勿點火:「我致電政府部門、警方及軍方尋求協助,同時勸止村民不要吸煙,或按照日常習慣在清早烤魚。」經過大清早總動員清理油污,村民總算能稍事休息。

Residents watch a fire from the oil spill in Balikpapan bay, East Kalimantan. An oil spill off Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a bursed of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

就在此時,有村民發現400米以外的漏油現場海面濃煙密佈,火勢更迅速蔓延……是否需要全村撤離?Ride視察過後決定暫時毋須疏散,事實證明他的判斷正確──潮水漸遠離海岸,大火亦於數小時後撲滅。惟不少漁船、貨船於事發海域作業,印尼當局於事發後4日公布,共有5人不幸於事故中喪生。

Fishermen collecting plastics contain  water and oil next to Pertamina's refinery installation in Margasari village, Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan. An oil spill off Balikpapan bay in  Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a burst of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

解決生態災難沒有捷徑,村民與緊急應變人員努力清理一袋又一袋油污,盼海洋回復蔚藍,但漏油遺禍遠不止於此。Ride表示事發後刺鼻氣味持續,健康中心更擠滿求診者,大部分都染上呼吸道疾病,他估計村內最少有1,250個家庭蒙受健康風險。

A  carcass of Iirrawaddy dolphin is examined by the officers after it was dead by the oil spill in Balikpapan bay, East Kalimantan. An oil spill off Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a bursed of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

救災分秒必爭,油污也是對海洋生物的死亡之吻,棲息地遍布東南亞的短吻海豚(Iirawaddy Dolphin)亦不能倖免,傷痕纍纍擱淺於沙灘。不過,印尼國營石油公司Pertamina在事故發生後意圖置身事外,事隔數天才承認責任,指位於海平面以下25米的一條輸油管道破裂,釀成事故。

A drone image shows oil spill surrounding Mangrove forest  in Kariangau village, Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan.  An oil spill off Balikpapan bay in  Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a burst of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

生態系統融為一體,海陸之間哪有明確界線?油污波及最少129平方公里海域──面積超過18,000個標準足球場大小,比1.5個香港島更大。而從航拍照片所見,油污更已蔓延至卡里安加村(Kariangau village)的紅樹林。

Proboscis monkey swim on the contaminated  at Mangrove forest that is contaminated by oil  in Kariangau village, Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan.  An oil spill off Balikpapan bay in  Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a burst of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

走近一看,紅樹林已變成「兩截色」──據印尼環境及森林部報告指出,事故已殃及34畝紅樹林生態系統,連被印尼政府列為當地25個瀕危物種之一的長鼻猴(Proboscis monkey),也無從迴避油污。

Crab's exporter Rustam, showing his crabs that are not approved by quarantine to be export after they were contaminated by oil  in Kariangau village, Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan.  An oil spill off Balikpapan bay in  Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a burst of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

自然生態首當其衝,漁民生計也大受打擊,就像Rustam手中一籃子滿佈油污的蟹,根本不適宜銷售。微生物學專家Hilda Meutia指出,除了肉眼清晰可見的海洋污染、引致皮膚與呼吸道疾病,漏油更會釋出有毒重金屬及致癌多環芳香烴(PAH)積累於生態系統,對人類及各種生物造成長遠甚至永久傷害。

A boy walks on the drained sea as it is contaminated by oil  in Kariangau village, Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan.  An oil spill off Balikpapan bay in  Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a burst of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

卡里安加村孩童的風箏,也無法飛越滿岸油污。漏油是下一代生命中不能承受之惡,由當地23個團體組成的「反油污大聯盟」,就批評Pertamina未有即時向當局及居民通報,至今亦缺乏有效措施阻止油污擴散,聲言將會訴諸法律,要求Pertamina承擔責任。

Greenpeace campaigner Ahmad Ashov Birry monitoring the area of oil spill about 10 kilometres from the pipe leaked location in Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan. An oil spill off Balikpapan bay in  Borneo island that led to five deaths and the declaration of a state of emergency was caused by a burst of undersea pipe belongs to Indonesia's state oil company Pertamina

正如綠色和平東南亞分部海洋項目主任Arifsyah Nasution所言:「當務之急是Pertamina必須就是次漏油事故及後續影響負起全責。印尼政府亦要把災後復原工作放在首位,並製訂長遠預防措施,避免悲劇再次發生。」

化石燃料在不少人眼中猶如無價寶,背後的環境代價卻由誰來承受?綠色和平呼籲印尼政府積極發展可再生能源,減少依賴化石燃料,別讓漏油悲劇延續下一幕。

工作項目