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United Nations

The United Nations plays a key role in coordinating the international response to climate change. But it is no simple job getting cooperation and agreement from the 191 member states of the UN - all intent on pursuing their own self interests and policies - even when the evidence is clearly shows that failing to act would be disastrous for all.

The two UN institutions that deal most directly with climate change arethe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  The firstprovides scientific and technical advice to policy makers, and thesecond develops policy mechanisms to deal with climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCCwas established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). At the time it wasrecognised that climate change was a serious issue, and that worldleaders would need unbiased scientific advice - independent of nationalinterests and corporate influence.  

The role of the IPCCis to advise policy makers about the current state of knowledge andprovide reliable information pertaining to climate change. It does notconduct any scientific research itself, but instead reviews thethousands of papers on climate change published in the peer reviewedliterature every year and summarises the 'state of knowledge' onclimate change in Assessment Reports which are published every fiveyears or so. About 1,000 experts from all over the world were involvedin drafting the most recent, the Third Assessment Report (2001), andabout 2,500 were involved in its review. The Fourth Assessment Report,well under way now, is due to be published in 2007. The IPCC alsopublishes a variety of other reports on request of governments,intergovernmental organisations or international treaties.  

TheIPCC is broken down into three working groups.  The first workinggroup "assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system andclimate change".  That is, it reports on what we know aboutclimate change - if it is happening, why it is happening and how fastit is happening. The second working group " assesses the vulnerabilityof socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, negative andpositive consequences of climate change, and options for adapting toit". That is, it looks at what degree climate change will impact peopleand the environment, and what changes might reduce its impacts. The third working group "assesses options for limiting greenhouse gasemissions and otherwise mitigating climate change." That is, itexamines ways we can stop human caused climate change, or at least slowit down.

Greenpeace relies heavily on IPCC reports as the basis for its international climate campaign.

See the Scientific Consensus page for a brief overview of the IPCC's latest conclusions.

Read in more detail about the IPCC's most recent assessment.

Visit the IPCC's own website for the full text of the Third Assessment Report.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

The UNFCCCwas agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, andhas since been ratified by 189 countries.  Its ultimate objective:

"[The] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system. Such a level should be achievedwithin a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturallyto climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened andto enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner." 

The Convention then goes on to say:

"The Partiesshould protect the climate system for the benefit of present and futuregenerations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance withtheir common but differentiated responsibilities and respectivecapabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should takethe lead in combating climate change and the adverse affects thereof."

( Full text of the Convention)

TheUNFCCC is, as its name implies, a 'framework' convention, and needssubsidiary legal instruments (e.g. protocols) to effect its goals. Ithas a non-binding target, which calls for industrialised countries tobring their emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000.  However, itwas obviously by 1995 that these voluntary targets wereinadequate.   Realizing the need for another approach, in1995 the Parties to the Convention established a process to negotiate aprotocol with binding targets and timetables "as a matter of urgency".The result was the Kyoto Protocol, which was agreed in December of 1997and finally entered into force on February 16, 2005.

The annualmeetings of the Convention are called Conferences of the Parties(COPs).  These meetings continue, and are attended by governmentofficials, industry lobbyists, Greenpeace and many other groups. Most of the Parties are genuinely seeking a way forward, looking evenbeyond Kyoto, but there are always those with huge vested interests inthe continuation of the fossil fuel industry - such as representativesof the Bush administration and the OPEC countries - whose main goal isto cripple the convention and generally prevent  any true progresson the issue.

You can read first hand accounts from these meetings, along with Greenpeace position papers and other relevant documents on our International Negotiations page.

The latest updates


Going to jail for clean air?

Feature story | 3 February, 2005 at 0:00

In June 2004, protestors climbed a 700-foot smokestack in Pennsylvania to bring attention to the dangers of a dirty coal power plant and US President Bush's polluting energy plan. They took this bold, peaceful action to help keep communities...

Aceh Tsunami disaster joint relief operation

Image | 21 January, 2005 at 15:50

2005 - Abdul Muthalib, 45, was one of the lucky ones that survived the Tsunami waves. He had time to gather his children and climb a hill. His farm was destroyed by the Tsunami losing his home and income. He now depends on humanitarian aid.

Solar Generation II

Publication | 18 January, 2005 at 0:00

Climate change is a key challenge that needs to be tackled by competitive eco-technologies. The European Union has played a leading role in defining the Kyoto Protocol. The forthcoming implementation of the emissions trading instrument will pave...

Piste Off: Climate change and winter sport

Feature story | 13 January, 2005 at 0:00

Snow machines aren't going to cut it, and we all know that slush sucks. Research in Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Austria, Switzerland, France and Scotland all say the same thing: global warming will affect the winter tourism industry...

Smoke stacks of the Mae Moh coal power plant

Image | 7 January, 2005 at 1:00

Smoke stacks of the Mae Moh coal power plant. Villagers living near by have respiratory problems due to the air pollution and acid rain is damaging the surrounding agricultural land. Coal power stations emit huge amounts of pollution including...

Background Briefing on Climate Litigation

Publication | 16 December, 2004 at 0:00

This document provides more information on 10 legal actions that have been announced around the world under several different legal theories in order to combat climate change. The 10 actions have been grouped together by legalcategory.

Two images of the Yanamarey glacier show

Image | 16 December, 2004 at 0:00

Two images of the Yanamarey glacier show a retreat in only 7 years. The glaciers in Peru have lost 22% of their area in the last 27 years according to a study made by the Peruvian Institute of National Resources.

Amazon under threat

Publication | 15 December, 2004 at 0:00

The Amazon is currently caught between two destructive forces – deforestation and climate change.

Greenpeace campaigner

Image | 14 December, 2004 at 0:00

Greenpeace campaigner, Melanie Duchin monitoring the environmental impacts of the oil spill resulting from the shipwreck of the Malaysian freighter Selendang.

Cast Adrift

Publication | 10 December, 2004 at 0:00

How the rich are leaving the poor to sink in a warming world.

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