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United Nations

The United Nations plays a key role in coordinating the international response to climate change. But it is no simple job getting cooperation and agreement from the 191 member states of the UN - all intent on pursuing their own self interests and policies - even when the evidence is clearly shows that failing to act would be disastrous for all.

The two UN institutions that deal most directly with climate change arethe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  The firstprovides scientific and technical advice to policy makers, and thesecond develops policy mechanisms to deal with climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCCwas established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). At the time it wasrecognised that climate change was a serious issue, and that worldleaders would need unbiased scientific advice - independent of nationalinterests and corporate influence.  

The role of the IPCCis to advise policy makers about the current state of knowledge andprovide reliable information pertaining to climate change. It does notconduct any scientific research itself, but instead reviews thethousands of papers on climate change published in the peer reviewedliterature every year and summarises the 'state of knowledge' onclimate change in Assessment Reports which are published every fiveyears or so. About 1,000 experts from all over the world were involvedin drafting the most recent, the Third Assessment Report (2001), andabout 2,500 were involved in its review. The Fourth Assessment Report,well under way now, is due to be published in 2007. The IPCC alsopublishes a variety of other reports on request of governments,intergovernmental organisations or international treaties.  

TheIPCC is broken down into three working groups.  The first workinggroup "assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system andclimate change".  That is, it reports on what we know aboutclimate change - if it is happening, why it is happening and how fastit is happening. The second working group " assesses the vulnerabilityof socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, negative andpositive consequences of climate change, and options for adapting toit". That is, it looks at what degree climate change will impact peopleand the environment, and what changes might reduce its impacts. The third working group "assesses options for limiting greenhouse gasemissions and otherwise mitigating climate change." That is, itexamines ways we can stop human caused climate change, or at least slowit down.

Greenpeace relies heavily on IPCC reports as the basis for its international climate campaign.

See the Scientific Consensus page for a brief overview of the IPCC's latest conclusions.

Read in more detail about the IPCC's most recent assessment.

Visit the IPCC's own website for the full text of the Third Assessment Report.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


The UNFCCCwas agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, andhas since been ratified by 189 countries.  Its ultimate objective:

"[The] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system. Such a level should be achievedwithin a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturallyto climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened andto enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner." 

The Convention then goes on to say:

"The Partiesshould protect the climate system for the benefit of present and futuregenerations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance withtheir common but differentiated responsibilities and respectivecapabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should takethe lead in combating climate change and the adverse affects thereof."

( Full text of the Convention)

TheUNFCCC is, as its name implies, a 'framework' convention, and needssubsidiary legal instruments (e.g. protocols) to effect its goals. Ithas a non-binding target, which calls for industrialised countries tobring their emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000.  However, itwas obviously by 1995 that these voluntary targets wereinadequate.   Realizing the need for another approach, in1995 the Parties to the Convention established a process to negotiate aprotocol with binding targets and timetables "as a matter of urgency".The result was the Kyoto Protocol, which was agreed in December of 1997and finally entered into force on February 16, 2005.

The annualmeetings of the Convention are called Conferences of the Parties(COPs).  These meetings continue, and are attended by governmentofficials, industry lobbyists, Greenpeace and many other groups. Most of the Parties are genuinely seeking a way forward, looking evenbeyond Kyoto, but there are always those with huge vested interests inthe continuation of the fossil fuel industry - such as representativesof the Bush administration and the OPEC countries - whose main goal isto cripple the convention and generally prevent  any true progresson the issue.

You can read first hand accounts from these meetings, along with Greenpeace position papers and other relevant documents on our International Negotiations page.

The latest updates

 

Activists visit ships soon destined to be

Image | 8 June, 2003 at 1:00

Activists visit ships soon destined to be scrapped in Asia.

Save our Climate

Image | 4 June, 2003 at 1:00

Save our Climate

Canada blocks environmental safeguards for CDM sinks projects

Publication | 4 June, 2003 at 0:00

At the upcoming Climate Change Conference (SB-18)in Bonn from 4-13 June, countries have a last chance to get negotiations right for CoP-9 in Milan, where modalities will be finalized for afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM for...

CDM sinks: Do not change 1990 reference year for CDM reforestation definition.

Publication | 4 June, 2003 at 0:00

The proposal to change the reforestation definition by moving the base year from 1990 (31 December 1989) to 2000 (31 December 1999) should be rejected. Canada first tabled this idea as a proposal to increase the eligible land area for...

Sinks in the CDM: After the climate,will biodiversity go down the drain?!

Publication | 4 June, 2003 at 0:00

Something is going seriously wrong. We are trying to protect the world’s ecosystems from climate change. And now, on our first humble steps towards this goal we are about to create a subsidy system for mono-culture plantations – thereby turning...

man holding cases containing unknown powder

Image | 1 June, 2003 at 1:00

man holding cases containing unknown powder. The suitcases also contain potentially toxic substances. The items are part of a large stock of materials looted from the Tuwaitha Nuclear facility that people are returning after reports of illness...

The Charges against ExxonMobil

Publication | 28 May, 2003 at 0:00

Greenpeace has named ExxonMobil Environmental Criminal #1 for its crimes against the climate. Here are the charges in detail.

Raining chemicals?

Feature story | 28 May, 2003 at 0:00

To most people, it is the pure sweet refreshing act of nature that sometimes soaks you when you least expect it but always washes away the dirt and refreshes the landscape. But along with the rain comes some nasty chemicals where you would least...

Dallas police respond to Greenpeace bust

Image | 27 May, 2003 at 1:00

Dallas police respond to Greenpeace bust of Exxon as #1 climate criminal.

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