This page has been archived, and may no longer be up to date

United Nations

The United Nations plays a key role in coordinating the international response to climate change. But it is no simple job getting cooperation and agreement from the 191 member states of the UN - all intent on pursuing their own self interests and policies - even when the evidence is clearly shows that failing to act would be disastrous for all.

The two UN institutions that deal most directly with climate change arethe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  The firstprovides scientific and technical advice to policy makers, and thesecond develops policy mechanisms to deal with climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCCwas established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). At the time it wasrecognised that climate change was a serious issue, and that worldleaders would need unbiased scientific advice - independent of nationalinterests and corporate influence.  

The role of the IPCCis to advise policy makers about the current state of knowledge andprovide reliable information pertaining to climate change. It does notconduct any scientific research itself, but instead reviews thethousands of papers on climate change published in the peer reviewedliterature every year and summarises the 'state of knowledge' onclimate change in Assessment Reports which are published every fiveyears or so. About 1,000 experts from all over the world were involvedin drafting the most recent, the Third Assessment Report (2001), andabout 2,500 were involved in its review. The Fourth Assessment Report,well under way now, is due to be published in 2007. The IPCC alsopublishes a variety of other reports on request of governments,intergovernmental organisations or international treaties.  

TheIPCC is broken down into three working groups.  The first workinggroup "assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system andclimate change".  That is, it reports on what we know aboutclimate change - if it is happening, why it is happening and how fastit is happening. The second working group " assesses the vulnerabilityof socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, negative andpositive consequences of climate change, and options for adapting toit". That is, it looks at what degree climate change will impact peopleand the environment, and what changes might reduce its impacts. The third working group "assesses options for limiting greenhouse gasemissions and otherwise mitigating climate change." That is, itexamines ways we can stop human caused climate change, or at least slowit down.

Greenpeace relies heavily on IPCC reports as the basis for its international climate campaign.

See the Scientific Consensus page for a brief overview of the IPCC's latest conclusions.

Read in more detail about the IPCC's most recent assessment.

Visit the IPCC's own website for the full text of the Third Assessment Report.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


The UNFCCCwas agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, andhas since been ratified by 189 countries.  Its ultimate objective:

"[The] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system. Such a level should be achievedwithin a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturallyto climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened andto enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner." 

The Convention then goes on to say:

"The Partiesshould protect the climate system for the benefit of present and futuregenerations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance withtheir common but differentiated responsibilities and respectivecapabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should takethe lead in combating climate change and the adverse affects thereof."

( Full text of the Convention)

TheUNFCCC is, as its name implies, a 'framework' convention, and needssubsidiary legal instruments (e.g. protocols) to effect its goals. Ithas a non-binding target, which calls for industrialised countries tobring their emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000.  However, itwas obviously by 1995 that these voluntary targets wereinadequate.   Realizing the need for another approach, in1995 the Parties to the Convention established a process to negotiate aprotocol with binding targets and timetables "as a matter of urgency".The result was the Kyoto Protocol, which was agreed in December of 1997and finally entered into force on February 16, 2005.

The annualmeetings of the Convention are called Conferences of the Parties(COPs).  These meetings continue, and are attended by governmentofficials, industry lobbyists, Greenpeace and many other groups. Most of the Parties are genuinely seeking a way forward, looking evenbeyond Kyoto, but there are always those with huge vested interests inthe continuation of the fossil fuel industry - such as representativesof the Bush administration and the OPEC countries - whose main goal isto cripple the convention and generally prevent  any true progresson the issue.

You can read first hand accounts from these meetings, along with Greenpeace position papers and other relevant documents on our International Negotiations page.

The latest updates

 

Big Oil pushes the White House for a war with Iraq

Feature story | 27 January, 2003 at 0:00

Never has there been a better time to be an oil baron. The car-owning masses of the world pay whatever it takes to fill their tanks. The money flows so freely it can buy and sell even the most destructive environmental policy. And if interests...

No blood for oil

Image | 25 January, 2003 at 0:00

No blood for oil -- image by Greenpeace Cyberactivist Paul Crouser

It's not about oil. Right!

Image | 24 January, 2003 at 0:00

It's not about oil. Right!

Greenpeace activists prevent the oil tanker

Image | 24 January, 2003 at 0:00

Greenpeace activists prevent the oil tanker ' STOLT AUSTRALIA' from delivering Shale Oil to the Mobil oil refinery in South Australia

Loyola de Palacio response to Greenpeace Cyberalert re Prestige oil tanker.

Publication | 23 January, 2003 at 0:00

In the wake of the Prestige oil spill, several thousand Greenpeace Cyberactivists wrote to the EU Energy and Transport Minister Loyola de Palacio to demand stricter rules governing oil tanker safety and swifter measures to ease dependence on...

Greenpeace joins participants of the World

Image | 23 January, 2003 at 0:00

Greenpeace joins participants of the World Social Forum in a protest against war with Iraq.

Take the message direct to Dow Chemical

Feature story | 22 January, 2003 at 0:00

Despite having received over 15,000 emails and many thousands of postcards and letters urging them to clean up their mess in Bhopal, India, Dow Chemical is continuing to ignore growing public outcry. We want that to change today and that is why...

Letter from UN to Greenpeace re Prestige and oil tanker security

Publication | 21 January, 2003 at 0:00

Response of United Nations to Greenpeace demands for tighter controls on oil tankers in wake of Prestige oil spill.

Gibraltar authorities detain a Greenpeace

Image | 20 January, 2003 at 0:00

Gibraltar authorities detain a Greenpeace inflatable following a Greenpeace protest against the single hulled oil tanker Vemamagna anchored in Algeciras Bay, Gibraltar today.

Greenpeace boards single-hull tanker in Gibraltar

Feature story | 20 January, 2003 at 0:00

The cleanup of some 25,000 tonnes of oil from the sunken Prestige oil tanker continues along the coasts of Spain, France and Portugal. But single hull tankers are still a permanent presence in the region. Greenpeace activists boarded the single...

3621 - 3630 of 4206 results.

Categories