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United Nations

The United Nations plays a key role in coordinating the international response to climate change. But it is no simple job getting cooperation and agreement from the 191 member states of the UN - all intent on pursuing their own self interests and policies - even when the evidence is clearly shows that failing to act would be disastrous for all.

The two UN institutions that deal most directly with climate change arethe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  The firstprovides scientific and technical advice to policy makers, and thesecond develops policy mechanisms to deal with climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCCwas established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). At the time it wasrecognised that climate change was a serious issue, and that worldleaders would need unbiased scientific advice - independent of nationalinterests and corporate influence.  

The role of the IPCCis to advise policy makers about the current state of knowledge andprovide reliable information pertaining to climate change. It does notconduct any scientific research itself, but instead reviews thethousands of papers on climate change published in the peer reviewedliterature every year and summarises the 'state of knowledge' onclimate change in Assessment Reports which are published every fiveyears or so. About 1,000 experts from all over the world were involvedin drafting the most recent, the Third Assessment Report (2001), andabout 2,500 were involved in its review. The Fourth Assessment Report,well under way now, is due to be published in 2007. The IPCC alsopublishes a variety of other reports on request of governments,intergovernmental organisations or international treaties.  

TheIPCC is broken down into three working groups.  The first workinggroup "assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system andclimate change".  That is, it reports on what we know aboutclimate change - if it is happening, why it is happening and how fastit is happening. The second working group " assesses the vulnerabilityof socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, negative andpositive consequences of climate change, and options for adapting toit". That is, it looks at what degree climate change will impact peopleand the environment, and what changes might reduce its impacts. The third working group "assesses options for limiting greenhouse gasemissions and otherwise mitigating climate change." That is, itexamines ways we can stop human caused climate change, or at least slowit down.

Greenpeace relies heavily on IPCC reports as the basis for its international climate campaign.

See the Scientific Consensus page for a brief overview of the IPCC's latest conclusions.

Read in more detail about the IPCC's most recent assessment.

Visit the IPCC's own website for the full text of the Third Assessment Report.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


The UNFCCCwas agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, andhas since been ratified by 189 countries.  Its ultimate objective:

"[The] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system. Such a level should be achievedwithin a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturallyto climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened andto enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner." 

The Convention then goes on to say:

"The Partiesshould protect the climate system for the benefit of present and futuregenerations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance withtheir common but differentiated responsibilities and respectivecapabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should takethe lead in combating climate change and the adverse affects thereof."

( Full text of the Convention)

TheUNFCCC is, as its name implies, a 'framework' convention, and needssubsidiary legal instruments (e.g. protocols) to effect its goals. Ithas a non-binding target, which calls for industrialised countries tobring their emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000.  However, itwas obviously by 1995 that these voluntary targets wereinadequate.   Realizing the need for another approach, in1995 the Parties to the Convention established a process to negotiate aprotocol with binding targets and timetables "as a matter of urgency".The result was the Kyoto Protocol, which was agreed in December of 1997and finally entered into force on February 16, 2005.

The annualmeetings of the Convention are called Conferences of the Parties(COPs).  These meetings continue, and are attended by governmentofficials, industry lobbyists, Greenpeace and many other groups. Most of the Parties are genuinely seeking a way forward, looking evenbeyond Kyoto, but there are always those with huge vested interests inthe continuation of the fossil fuel industry - such as representativesof the Bush administration and the OPEC countries - whose main goal isto cripple the convention and generally prevent  any true progresson the issue.

You can read first hand accounts from these meetings, along with Greenpeace position papers and other relevant documents on our International Negotiations page.

The latest updates

 

Norway must reject CO2 ocean dumping

Feature story | 9 July, 2002 at 0:00

A controversial scheme to dispose of the fossil fuel industry's waste problems has the Norwegian government poised to undermine international law.

French Esso decision blow to free expression

Feature story | 9 July, 2002 at 0:00

The right to freedom of expression on the Internet suffered as a Paris judge ordered Greenpeace to stop using a parody of the Esso logo in its StopEsso campaign in France, pending a full hearing of the case.

Ocean dumping of carbon dioxide - No solution to climate change

Publication | 9 July, 2002 at 0:00

Instead of reducing our reliance on fossil fuels, which would cut the problem at its source, many in industry and government want to be able to keep burning fossil fuels, and so are pushing to find ways of storing or "disposing" of CO2. Dumping...

New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark visits

Image | 8 July, 2002 at 1:00

New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark visits the Greenpeace flotilla before they sail to join other Greenpeace boats to protest against the BNFL Plutonium shipment being transported through the Pacific Ocean

Possible plutonium security escort HMS Nottingham runs aground in rough weather off...

Feature story | 8 July, 2002 at 0:00

Shortly after a flotilla of small boats set out to protest a shipment of weapons-usable plutonium through the Tasman sea, a possible security escort, the HMS Nottingham, ran aground off the east coast of Australia.

Boats set sail from Auckland to join the

Image | 7 July, 2002 at 1:00

Boats set sail from Auckland to join the flotilla that will protest British Nuclear Fuels plutonium shipment transport through the Pacific ocean.

New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark visits

Image | 7 July, 2002 at 1:00

New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark visits the flotilla before they sail to join other boats to protest against the BNFL Plutonium shipment being transported through the Pacific Ocean.

Opponents of nuclear transport set sail for rough weather and high seas vigil

Feature story | 7 July, 2002 at 0:00

What would possess a comfortably retired grandfather, a former rock musician, a chimney sweep and a tour guide to set out in small boats in some of the roughest waters in the world? What can unite the Pacific island nation of Fiji with the...

Greenpeace and local groups in Suva

Image | 5 July, 2002 at 1:00

Greenpeace and local groups in Suva, Fiji demonstrate, on July 5th 2002, the Pacific people's opposition to plutonium shipments through the Pacific.

Greenpeace and community organisations in

Image | 5 July, 2002 at 1:00

Greenpeace and community organisations in Suva, Fiji demonstrate the Pacific people's opposition to plutonium shipments through the Pacific.

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