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United Nations

The United Nations plays a key role in coordinating the international response to climate change. But it is no simple job getting cooperation and agreement from the 191 member states of the UN - all intent on pursuing their own self interests and policies - even when the evidence is clearly shows that failing to act would be disastrous for all.

The two UN institutions that deal most directly with climate change arethe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  The firstprovides scientific and technical advice to policy makers, and thesecond develops policy mechanisms to deal with climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCCwas established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). At the time it wasrecognised that climate change was a serious issue, and that worldleaders would need unbiased scientific advice - independent of nationalinterests and corporate influence.  

The role of the IPCCis to advise policy makers about the current state of knowledge andprovide reliable information pertaining to climate change. It does notconduct any scientific research itself, but instead reviews thethousands of papers on climate change published in the peer reviewedliterature every year and summarises the 'state of knowledge' onclimate change in Assessment Reports which are published every fiveyears or so. About 1,000 experts from all over the world were involvedin drafting the most recent, the Third Assessment Report (2001), andabout 2,500 were involved in its review. The Fourth Assessment Report,well under way now, is due to be published in 2007. The IPCC alsopublishes a variety of other reports on request of governments,intergovernmental organisations or international treaties.  

TheIPCC is broken down into three working groups.  The first workinggroup "assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system andclimate change".  That is, it reports on what we know aboutclimate change - if it is happening, why it is happening and how fastit is happening. The second working group " assesses the vulnerabilityof socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, negative andpositive consequences of climate change, and options for adapting toit". That is, it looks at what degree climate change will impact peopleand the environment, and what changes might reduce its impacts. The third working group "assesses options for limiting greenhouse gasemissions and otherwise mitigating climate change." That is, itexamines ways we can stop human caused climate change, or at least slowit down.

Greenpeace relies heavily on IPCC reports as the basis for its international climate campaign.

See the Scientific Consensus page for a brief overview of the IPCC's latest conclusions.

Read in more detail about the IPCC's most recent assessment.

Visit the IPCC's own website for the full text of the Third Assessment Report.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


The UNFCCCwas agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, andhas since been ratified by 189 countries.  Its ultimate objective:

"[The] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system. Such a level should be achievedwithin a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturallyto climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened andto enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner." 

The Convention then goes on to say:

"The Partiesshould protect the climate system for the benefit of present and futuregenerations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance withtheir common but differentiated responsibilities and respectivecapabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should takethe lead in combating climate change and the adverse affects thereof."

( Full text of the Convention)

TheUNFCCC is, as its name implies, a 'framework' convention, and needssubsidiary legal instruments (e.g. protocols) to effect its goals. Ithas a non-binding target, which calls for industrialised countries tobring their emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000.  However, itwas obviously by 1995 that these voluntary targets wereinadequate.   Realizing the need for another approach, in1995 the Parties to the Convention established a process to negotiate aprotocol with binding targets and timetables "as a matter of urgency".The result was the Kyoto Protocol, which was agreed in December of 1997and finally entered into force on February 16, 2005.

The annualmeetings of the Convention are called Conferences of the Parties(COPs).  These meetings continue, and are attended by governmentofficials, industry lobbyists, Greenpeace and many other groups. Most of the Parties are genuinely seeking a way forward, looking evenbeyond Kyoto, but there are always those with huge vested interests inthe continuation of the fossil fuel industry - such as representativesof the Bush administration and the OPEC countries - whose main goal isto cripple the convention and generally prevent  any true progresson the issue.

You can read first hand accounts from these meetings, along with Greenpeace position papers and other relevant documents on our International Negotiations page.

The latest updates

 

The suffering continues in Bhopal but not

Image | 3 December, 2001 at 1:00

The suffering continues in Bhopal but not in silence. Sunil Kumar (right) calls for justice. He was given up for dead when the disaster struck.

Protestors draw attention to the contrast

Image | 3 December, 2001 at 1:00

Protestors draw attention to the contrast between efforts to find Osama bin Laden and those to extradite Warren Anderson, former chief executive of Union Carbide. Anderson is evading justice in the United States and wanted for crimes in Bhopal.

Bhopal survivors on eve of 17th anniversary

Image | 2 December, 2001 at 1:00

Bhopal survivors on eve of 17th anniversary of the world's worst chemical disaster

Gumanilal is a familiar figure in Jayaprakash

Image | 1 December, 2001 at 1:00

Gumanilal is a familiar figure in Jayaprakash Nagar, an area opposite the Union Carbide factory. Some, like Gumanilal, received inadequate compensation after the disaster, which helped them to pay medical expenses for a short time. Others have...

Forest Views: a newsletter for customers and investors of Canadian logging companies,...

Publication | 1 December, 2001 at 0:00

In this Issue: New BC Liberals and the Great Bear Rainforest, The Ancient Forest Summit, Forest Stewardship Council Eco-Certification and Canadian Book Publishers.

Skulls of the victims of the disaster used

Image | 1 December, 2001 at 0:00

Skulls of the victims of the disaster used to investigate the effects of the gas leak on the brain

Finish the Job at COP7

Publication | 29 November, 2001 at 0:00

WTO meeting fails the world

Feature story | 14 November, 2001 at 0:00

As trade liberalisation talks ground to a close, the Greenpeace flagship Rainbow Warrior set sail from offshore the World Trade Organisation (WTO) meeting site in Doha, Qatar.

Silent protest with banner reading 'Injustice

Image | 2 November, 2001 at 0:00

Silent protest with banner reading 'Injustice for Venice' after the acquittal of senior managers of petrochemical companies Enichem and Montedison on charges or environmental pollution and death of workers in 2001.

Danger to German nuclear power plants from crashes by passenger aircraft

Publication | 1 November, 2001 at 0:00

What can in fact happen if a passenger plane crashes into anuclear power plant – be it accidentally or brought about on purpose –

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