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United Nations

The United Nations plays a key role in coordinating the international response to climate change. But it is no simple job getting cooperation and agreement from the 191 member states of the UN - all intent on pursuing their own self interests and policies - even when the evidence is clearly shows that failing to act would be disastrous for all.

The two UN institutions that deal most directly with climate change arethe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  The firstprovides scientific and technical advice to policy makers, and thesecond develops policy mechanisms to deal with climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCCwas established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). At the time it wasrecognised that climate change was a serious issue, and that worldleaders would need unbiased scientific advice - independent of nationalinterests and corporate influence.  

The role of the IPCCis to advise policy makers about the current state of knowledge andprovide reliable information pertaining to climate change. It does notconduct any scientific research itself, but instead reviews thethousands of papers on climate change published in the peer reviewedliterature every year and summarises the 'state of knowledge' onclimate change in Assessment Reports which are published every fiveyears or so. About 1,000 experts from all over the world were involvedin drafting the most recent, the Third Assessment Report (2001), andabout 2,500 were involved in its review. The Fourth Assessment Report,well under way now, is due to be published in 2007. The IPCC alsopublishes a variety of other reports on request of governments,intergovernmental organisations or international treaties.  

TheIPCC is broken down into three working groups.  The first workinggroup "assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system andclimate change".  That is, it reports on what we know aboutclimate change - if it is happening, why it is happening and how fastit is happening. The second working group " assesses the vulnerabilityof socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, negative andpositive consequences of climate change, and options for adapting toit". That is, it looks at what degree climate change will impact peopleand the environment, and what changes might reduce its impacts. The third working group "assesses options for limiting greenhouse gasemissions and otherwise mitigating climate change." That is, itexamines ways we can stop human caused climate change, or at least slowit down.

Greenpeace relies heavily on IPCC reports as the basis for its international climate campaign.

See the Scientific Consensus page for a brief overview of the IPCC's latest conclusions.

Read in more detail about the IPCC's most recent assessment.

Visit the IPCC's own website for the full text of the Third Assessment Report.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

The UNFCCCwas agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, andhas since been ratified by 189 countries.  Its ultimate objective:

"[The] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system. Such a level should be achievedwithin a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturallyto climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened andto enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner." 

The Convention then goes on to say:

"The Partiesshould protect the climate system for the benefit of present and futuregenerations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance withtheir common but differentiated responsibilities and respectivecapabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should takethe lead in combating climate change and the adverse affects thereof."

( Full text of the Convention)

TheUNFCCC is, as its name implies, a 'framework' convention, and needssubsidiary legal instruments (e.g. protocols) to effect its goals. Ithas a non-binding target, which calls for industrialised countries tobring their emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000.  However, itwas obviously by 1995 that these voluntary targets wereinadequate.   Realizing the need for another approach, in1995 the Parties to the Convention established a process to negotiate aprotocol with binding targets and timetables "as a matter of urgency".The result was the Kyoto Protocol, which was agreed in December of 1997and finally entered into force on February 16, 2005.

The annualmeetings of the Convention are called Conferences of the Parties(COPs).  These meetings continue, and are attended by governmentofficials, industry lobbyists, Greenpeace and many other groups. Most of the Parties are genuinely seeking a way forward, looking evenbeyond Kyoto, but there are always those with huge vested interests inthe continuation of the fossil fuel industry - such as representativesof the Bush administration and the OPEC countries - whose main goal isto cripple the convention and generally prevent  any true progresson the issue.

You can read first hand accounts from these meetings, along with Greenpeace position papers and other relevant documents on our International Negotiations page.

The latest updates


Once productive lands destroyed by desertification

Image | 10 April, 2002 at 1:00


Mongolian villagers migrate to the ever descreasing

Image | 10 April, 2002 at 1:00

Mongolian villagers migrate to the ever descreasing grassland regions to escape the desertifaction of areas of Inner Mongolia

Boy drinking unclean water

Image | 10 April, 2002 at 1:00

Boy drinking unclean water. Scarcity of water has lead to unclean water being sold to local people. With the increasing drought and the rise in desertification in the area fresh drinking water has become a precious commodity.

Farming Solutions site launched

Feature story | 8 April, 2002 at 0:00

Farming Solutions is a new web site that shows how the world can combat hunger and achieve food security using environmentally-sound farming practises that are available now, but are too-often overlooked.

'I was the man in charge of law and order

Image | 1 April, 2002 at 1:00

'I was the man in charge of law and order that night. Everyone else had fled to safety, leaving the city and its people to their own devices. But I have paid a heavy price. I have survived, but with a clutch of ailments.' says Swaraj Puri, as he...

Contamination from the plant pollutes the

Image | 1 April, 2002 at 1:00

Contamination from the plant pollutes the soil and ground water of local communities. Hundreds of people, still drink and wash with the contaminated ground water.

Union Carbide left hundreds of tonnes of

Image | 1 April, 2002 at 1:00

Union Carbide left hundreds of tonnes of toxic waste on the site. Until mid-2001, the factory grounds were inaccessible without special permission from the government.

Hasan Ali has seven grown

Image | 1 April, 2002 at 1:00

Hasan Ali has seven grown-up daughters. 'Our education has suffered because of our father's illness, and the fact that we too have been ill at different times. Because of this, there are several problems related to our marriages,' says Kishwar,...

Pushpa (70) lies in a ward in the Bhopal

Image | 1 April, 2002 at 1:00

Pushpa (70) lies in a ward in the Bhopal Memorial Charitable Hospital and Research Centre. 'She is our aunt. She was exposed to the gas. She has been sick ever since. But now her condition is much worse. In fact, this hospital has become almost...

Born on the day the toxic gas swept across

Image | 1 April, 2002 at 1:00

Born on the day the toxic gas swept across the city, this girl was named Gas Devi - 'gas goddess' - by her parents.

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