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United Nations

The United Nations plays a key role in coordinating the international response to climate change. But it is no simple job getting cooperation and agreement from the 191 member states of the UN - all intent on pursuing their own self interests and policies - even when the evidence is clearly shows that failing to act would be disastrous for all.

The two UN institutions that deal most directly with climate change arethe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  The firstprovides scientific and technical advice to policy makers, and thesecond develops policy mechanisms to deal with climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCCwas established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). At the time it wasrecognised that climate change was a serious issue, and that worldleaders would need unbiased scientific advice - independent of nationalinterests and corporate influence.  

The role of the IPCCis to advise policy makers about the current state of knowledge andprovide reliable information pertaining to climate change. It does notconduct any scientific research itself, but instead reviews thethousands of papers on climate change published in the peer reviewedliterature every year and summarises the 'state of knowledge' onclimate change in Assessment Reports which are published every fiveyears or so. About 1,000 experts from all over the world were involvedin drafting the most recent, the Third Assessment Report (2001), andabout 2,500 were involved in its review. The Fourth Assessment Report,well under way now, is due to be published in 2007. The IPCC alsopublishes a variety of other reports on request of governments,intergovernmental organisations or international treaties.  

TheIPCC is broken down into three working groups.  The first workinggroup "assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system andclimate change".  That is, it reports on what we know aboutclimate change - if it is happening, why it is happening and how fastit is happening. The second working group " assesses the vulnerabilityof socio-economic and natural systems to climate change, negative andpositive consequences of climate change, and options for adapting toit". That is, it looks at what degree climate change will impact peopleand the environment, and what changes might reduce its impacts. The third working group "assesses options for limiting greenhouse gasemissions and otherwise mitigating climate change." That is, itexamines ways we can stop human caused climate change, or at least slowit down.

Greenpeace relies heavily on IPCC reports as the basis for its international climate campaign.

See the Scientific Consensus page for a brief overview of the IPCC's latest conclusions.

Read in more detail about the IPCC's most recent assessment.

Visit the IPCC's own website for the full text of the Third Assessment Report.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


The UNFCCCwas agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, andhas since been ratified by 189 countries.  Its ultimate objective:

"[The] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenicinterference with the climate system. Such a level should be achievedwithin a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturallyto climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened andto enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner." 

The Convention then goes on to say:

"The Partiesshould protect the climate system for the benefit of present and futuregenerations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance withtheir common but differentiated responsibilities and respectivecapabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should takethe lead in combating climate change and the adverse affects thereof."

( Full text of the Convention)

TheUNFCCC is, as its name implies, a 'framework' convention, and needssubsidiary legal instruments (e.g. protocols) to effect its goals. Ithas a non-binding target, which calls for industrialised countries tobring their emissions back to 1990 levels by 2000.  However, itwas obviously by 1995 that these voluntary targets wereinadequate.   Realizing the need for another approach, in1995 the Parties to the Convention established a process to negotiate aprotocol with binding targets and timetables "as a matter of urgency".The result was the Kyoto Protocol, which was agreed in December of 1997and finally entered into force on February 16, 2005.

The annualmeetings of the Convention are called Conferences of the Parties(COPs).  These meetings continue, and are attended by governmentofficials, industry lobbyists, Greenpeace and many other groups. Most of the Parties are genuinely seeking a way forward, looking evenbeyond Kyoto, but there are always those with huge vested interests inthe continuation of the fossil fuel industry - such as representativesof the Bush administration and the OPEC countries - whose main goal isto cripple the convention and generally prevent  any true progresson the issue.

You can read first hand accounts from these meetings, along with Greenpeace position papers and other relevant documents on our International Negotiations page.

The latest updates

 

If you believe in human rights, you believe in renewable energy for all

Blog entry by Arin de Hoog | 10 December, 2015 8 comments

Climate change and human rights. We care about them both, but we often think of them separately. Violations of human rights we usually associate with brutal regimes, unjustified imprisonment and violence carried out between people. ...

Three solar power projects where women are taking the lead

Blog entry by Georgie Johnson | 9 December, 2015 1 comment

Forget international climate talks – women around the world are already taking the clean energy transition into their own hands in ways only women can. Yesterday was the third ever 'gender day' at the UN climate talks in Paris...

Why oceans are critical to our climate: 5 facts to keep in mind during COP21

Blog entry by Veronica Frank | 9 December, 2015

1. Oceans are the blue heart of our planet. Oceans play a central role in sustaining life on Earth. They provide us with food, resources, jobs, livelihood, and many ecological services that are essential to our very survival. Most...

Exposed: Academics-for-hire agree not to disclose fossil fuel funding

Blog entry by Lawrence Carter and Maeve McClenaghan | 9 December, 2015 2 comments

A Greenpeace undercover investigation has exposed how fossil fuel companies can secretly pay academics at leading American universities to write research that sows doubt about climate science and promotes the companies' commercial...

The critical state of Mother Earth, 2015

Blog entry by Rex Weyler | 4 December, 2015 1 comment

In September of this year, Chief Phil Lane Jr. (Ihanktonwan Dakota and Chickasaw Nations) asked me to help prepare a document for presentation at the Indigenous World Wisdom Gathering, during the climate conference in Paris. The...

COP21: An open letter to Prime Minister Modi

Blog entry by Kumi Naidoo | 4 December, 2015 2 comments

Dear Prime Minister Modi, I write to you from Paris to express my solidarity as India faces devastating floods in Chennai. I am an African, but my ancestors hailed from the region that is suffering. My thoughts – and the thoughts of...

Will Europe lead the way towards 'zero deforestation'?

Blog entry by Sébastien Risso | 2 December, 2015 2 comments

From the time we're in school, we are taught that forests absorb and store carbon dioxide, one of the main greenhouse gases (GHG) responsible for climate change, and that they produce and release oxygen. Yet despite the essential role...

Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) report

Publication | 2 December, 2015 at 11:00

In September 2015, the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) announced the publication of a new Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) report. This is the country’s official report to the UNFCCC, establishing baseline...

People's Climate March 2015

Slideshow | 1 December, 2015

Shell's not so beautiful relationship

Blog entry by Jess Miller | 30 November, 2015 3 comments

By now, not much that oil companies say or do to profit off outdated fuel sources surprises me. But even if they aren’t surprising, it is still entertaining to watch just how wrong they can get it.   Around the world, renewables are...

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