In recent years, concerns have grown over the use of hazardous chemicals and materials in these products. Attention has tended to focus on the impacts on human health and the environment due to such chemicals, through the use and ultimate disposal or recycling of these products. Less consideration has been paid to the potential environmental impacts that result from their manufacture.This industry has high resource intensity, in terms of chemicals, energy and water demands. This is especially the case for printed wiring board (PWBs) and semiconductor chip manufacture. Processes used in both sectors are highly complex and chemically intensive; many of the chemicals employed do not form part of the final product (e.g. solvents). Substantial concerns exist for many chemicals used in this industry, both for potential exposure in the workplace and the possible environmental consequences of their release in waste streams.