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專題報導 海洋
3 mins

一趟亞馬遜巡航,滿足珊瑚礁三個願望

作者: 綠色和平
「Surprise!」生活淡淡似是流水,不妨讓海洋加點驚喜調味?綠色和平船艦希望號去年聯同海洋生物學家拍攝全球首輯亞馬遜珊瑚礁影像,將這神秘而瑰麗的存在呈現世人眼前;事隔一年,為了力拒石油企業來犯,希望號重遊舊地巡航45日,已見珊瑚礁三大驚喜接踵而來,更印證我們對大自然的認知何其淺薄,何其渺小。

珊瑚礁面積6倍UP!

清澈蔚藍的熱帶或亞熱帶淺水區,向來才是滋養珊瑚礁的領土,但在幽深而混濁之亞馬遜河口,原來一直有珊瑚礁頑強生長。70年代至今,亞馬遜珊瑚礁的間接證據陸續浮現,但直至2016年,才有學術研究證實這個全新海洋生物群系確切存在。

據早前計算,這片位於巴西北部對開海域約60至220米深處的珊瑚礁系統,面積約為9,500平方公里;但今年4月,多位海洋生物學家深入研究綠色和平去年拍攝的珊瑚礁影像後加以論證,指出亞馬遜珊瑚礁的面積高達56,000平方公里,等於原先計算的接近6倍,足足等於50個香港!研究同時發現,這片珊瑚礁猶如連結大西洋南部與加勒比海的海洋生物多樣性廊道,孕育青光鰓魚(Chromis cyanea)等常見於加勒比海的豐富物種。

ENGLISH BELOWBanco de rodolitos coberto por algumas esponjas-do-mar na região dos Corais da Amazônia, a 180 metros de profundidade e 120 km da costa brasileira. A formação está dentro da bloco onde a empresa Total quer buscar petróleo e foi descoberta durante a expedição do Greenpeace na região. O navio Esperanza está no Brasil para uma expedição científica sobre os Corais da Amazônia. Pesquisadores e o time do Greenpeace buscam mais informações sobre esse bioma, que é único no mundo. Empresas internacionais têm planos de explorar petróleo na região próxima aos Corais em breve. Especialistas, no entanto, alertam que um vazamento ali ameaçaria de forma irreversível o bem-estar do ecossistema marinho e das pessoas que habitam a costa. Foto Greenpeace.Rhodolith field covered by some sponges in the Amazon Reef region, 180 meters deep and 120km off the northern coast of Brazil. The formation is where French company Total intends to drill for oil and was found during a Greenpeace expedition in Brazil. The ship Esperanza is back to Brazil for a scientific expedition about the Amazon Reef. Researchers and the Greenpeace team seek for more information about the biome that is unique in the world. International oil companies want to drill for oil within a few kilometers of the Amazon Reef soon. However, experts warn that an oil spill in the area would irreversibly threaten the well being of the ecosystem and people living in the coast. Photo Greenpeace.

斷正!石油公司無損生態的謊言

珊瑚礁的瑰麗姿采,依然未能傾倒眾生──若雙眼被利益蒙蔽。英國石油公司(BP)與法國道達爾石油公司(Total)一直有意在珊瑚礁附近勘探石油,但在申請鑽油許可時呈交的環評報告,卻忽視漏油對海洋生態及沿岸居民生計的潛在風險。其中BP的鑽油申請因缺乏漏油事故如何影響環境的模擬評估,去年12月被巴西環境及可再生自然資源部(IBAMA)駁回。

另邊廂,Total亦再次向IBAMA呈交環評報告,以鑽油設施將與珊瑚礁相距最少8公里作辯解,但希望號今次巡航拍攝所得水底影像,證實在Total的勘探石油選址內存在紅藻石(Rhodolith)等珊瑚礁生物,意味整個環評建基於不實基礎:一旦發生漏油事故,珊瑚礁將首當其衝。事件曝光後,阿馬帕州(Amapá)一名聯邦檢察官公開呼籲環境部門拒絕Total的鑽油申請,讓純淨美景免受威脅。

Amazon Reef in French Guiana watersPictures made by Greenpeace ship Esperanza in French Guiana waters in May 2018.Reef structures were found at 95 to 120 metres deep, less than 150 kilometres from Cayenne.Scientists on board with Greenpeace found reef structures in two areas studied and were able to take pictures of a few corals and fish species. The team of scientists involved in the research are confident to say that these reef structures are part of the Amazon Reef. Photo Greenpeace

一路向北,見證無國界之美

楚河與漢界,只有人類為此劍拔弩張,珊瑚礁之美豈容隔絕?希望號今次駛往巴西以北的法屬圭亞那,就在距離首府卡宴(Cayenne)不足150公里的95至120米海底兩個探索範圍,同樣找到珊瑚礁蹤影,經隨船科學團隊反覆分析後,證實整個珊瑚礁系統延伸至法屬圭亞那,意味亞馬遜珊瑚礁隨時比56,000平方公里更廣闊!

要揭開亞馬遜珊瑚礁的神秘面紗,其實殊不容易──天氣不似預期加上湍動急流,令希望號船員拍攝一張珊瑚礁照片也顯得格外困難,更遑論一旦發生漏油事故,區內向北的急勁水流勢令油污蔓延至法屬圭亞那,釀成不可逆轉的環境破壞,談何清理,談何善後?

ENGLISH BELOWO navio Esperanza está no Brasil para uma expedição científica sobre os Corais da Amazônia. Pesquisadores e o time do Greenpeace buscam mais informações sobre esse bioma, que é único no mundo. Empresas internacionais têm planos de explorar petróleo na região próxima aos Corais em breve. Especialistas, no entanto, alertam que um vazamento ali ameaçaria de forma irreversível o bem-estar do ecossistema marinho e das pessoas que habitam a costa. Foto Marizilda Cruppe/Greenpeace.The ship Esperanza is back to Brazil for a scientific expedition about the Amazon Reef. Researchers and the Greenpeace team seek for more information about the biome that is unique in the world. International oil companies want to drill for oil within a few kilometers of the Amazon Reef soon. However, experts warn that an oil spill in the area would irreversibly threaten the well-being of the ecosystem and people living in the coast. Photo Marizilda Cruppe/Greenpeace.

阻止鑽油關鍵時刻

感謝您與全球超過200萬人聲援,綠色和平「守護亞馬遜珊瑚礁」項目初見成效:澳洲石油企業BHP在3月率先宣布放棄亞馬遜河口鑽油計劃。不過,BP與Total的鑽油野心仍未止息,其中巴西當局預計將於短期內裁決Total的鑽油申請,因此更需要您加入聯署,一同守護美洲海牛、巨型水獺等易危物種,也讓這片「隱世」多年的壯麗珊瑚礁得以遠離油污,為我們綻放更多驚喜。